Academic writing research paper sample
- objectivity: the capability to perceive a subject without having to be impacted by personal biases or emotions.
- bias: a opinion that is definite position on a subject.
- lab report: A step-by-step explanation of this materials, methods, data, results, analysis,
conclusions, and references of an experiment.
Scientific research papers report new discoveries, applying evidence to resolve questions and identify patterns. Writing in these disciplines often takes the type of peer-reviewed journal articles, literature reviews, grant proposals, case studies, and lab reports.
For example, in an environmental-science lab report, a student might analyze research results to address or clarify a particular scientific development or question:
“This study is designed to identify degrees of chlorine and phosphorus compounds in a three-mile stretch associated with the Columbia River, which is an area notable for salmon runs. An analysis of samples taken over a two-year period from various locations inside the three-mile stretch revealed the persistence of high levels of phosphorous and chlorine compounds. Into the study, we examine the relationship between salmon population while the persistence among these compounds.”
Scientific papers require significant amounts of preliminary work, including research, field work, and experimentation. Translating that work into writing may be difficult, but academic conventions provide a common template for communicating findings clearly and effectively.
Writing into the sciences seeks to spell out complex phenomena in clear, straightforward prose that minimizes bias that is authorial. It also includes aspects of classical argument, since scientific papers are anticipated to contextualize, analyze, and interpret the given information at hand.
Precision of Language
Lab reports, case studies, and other kinds of scientific writing needs to be precise to be able to provide results which can be reproduced and tested.
Make an effort to use words that are simple sentences. Some students attempt to make their work sound more intellectual by utilizing obscure words and long, elaborate sentences. The truth is, the academy values precise words and detailed descriptions which can be still understandable to a audience that is lay. Don’t make an effort to mimic the stereotype of dense, convoluted writing that is academic. Instead, write as simply and clearly as possible. Precision is a component that is key of.
When you look at the sciences, precision has two main applications: using concrete examples, and using clear language to describe them. Defining your parameters accurately is vital. Don’t generalize—provide times that are exact measurements, quantities, and other relevant data as much as possible. Using precise, straightforward language to describe your work can also be vital. This is simply not the right time or location for flashy vocabulary words or rhetorical flourishes. Style, however, is still important: currently talking about the sciences doesn’t offer you a pass to write sloppily.
The sciences shoot for objectivity at every stage, through the experimental procedures to the language found in the write-up. Science writing must convince its audience that its offering a significant, innovative contribution; as a result, this has an argumentative character. Combining objectivity and argumentative writing can be challenging. Scientific objectivity has two requirements: your hypothesis should be testable, along with your results must be reproducible.
The significance of objectivity into the sciences limits writers’ ability to use rhetoric that is persuasive. However, it’s still required to make a strong case for the significance, relevance, and applicability of one’s research. Argumentative writing comes with a accepted place in scientific papers, but its role is bound. You might use language that is persuasive the abstract, introduction, literature review, discussion of results, and conclusion, but avoid using it when you describe your methods and present your results.
Many students struggle to transition from a single topic to another location. Transitions are very well worth mastering—they would be the glue that holds your ideas together. Never assume that your reader will correctly guess the relationships between different subtopics; it really is your responsibility to describe these connections.
Maintaining your chosen model in your mind although you write often helps ensure that your decisions and conclusions are logically consistent. Also, look out for logic traps such as for example bias and faulty causality. Researchers must account for their biases that are own or personal preferences, prejudices, and preconceived notions. These may include cognitive bias (irrational thinking), cultural bias (the imposition of one’s own cultural standards upon research subjects), and sampling bias (the tendency during sample collection to incorporate some members of the intended sample more readily than others).
Your body of a scientific paper generally is comprised of the following sections: introduction (that might include a literature review), methods, results, and discussion.
Define each component of the IMRAD structure
- The IMRAD model could be the conventional approach that is structural academic writing within the sciences. The IMRAD model has four parts: introduction, methods, results, and discussion.
- An overview is provided by the literature review of relevant research in your discipline. This may be included included in the introduction, or it might stand as the own section.
- The strategy section should explain how you collected and evaluated important computer data.
- In case your project conducts an experiment or an original data analysis, you ought to include a different section that reports your outcomes.
- The discussion section should analyze your results without reporting any findings that are new.
- IMRAD: An acronym for Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion—the conventional structure of a paper that is scientific.
- literature review: A synthesis associated with the critical points of current knowledge in a given field, which includes significant findings along with theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic.
- quantitative: Of research methods that depend on objective measurements and data analysis.
- result: The discovery (or lack of discovery) that comes from the method that is scientific of.
- qualitative: Of research methods that creates a far more understanding that is subjective studying a subject’s defining qualities and character.
The format for the body of the paper varies depending on the discipline, audience, and research methods in the natural and social sciences. Generally, the body for the paper contains an introduction, a methods section, results, and discussion. This method is named IMRAD for short.
These sections are usually separate, although sometimes the total email address details are with the methods. However, many instructors prefer that students maintain these divisions, since they are still learning the conventions of writing in their discipline. Most journals that are scientific the IMRAD format, or variations of it, and also recommend that writers designate the four elements with uniform title headings.
Try to stay true to each section’s stated purpose. You can easily cite relevant sources in the methods, discussion, and conclusion sections, but again, save the discussion that is lengthy of sources for the introduction or literature review. The outcomes section should describe your outcomes without discussing their significance, while the discussion section should analyze your results without reporting any findings that are new. Think about each section as a training course served at a dinner—don’t that is fancy the soup into the salad or add leftover scraps through the entree to your dessert!